Metabolic Surgery (Type 2 Diabetes Surgery)

Metabolik Cerrahi (Tip 2 Diyabet Cerrahisi)

Metabolic surgery is popularly known as diabetes surgery. It is an important surgical treatment not only for diabetes, but also for patients with hypertension, obesity and high cholesterol problems. In medicine, such diseases are called metabolic syndrome diseases. It affects a person’s quality of life to a great extent. If it is not treated, it can not only negatively affect life, but also cause great damage or consequences. Thanks to the developments in metabolic surgery, it has become possible to get rid of the important diseases listed. Today, where the success rate has reached very high levels, targeted improvement in treatments can be achieved with early diagnosis.

What is Metabolic Surgery?

It is used for the treatment of metabolic syndromes such as type 2 diabetes. There are many different methods among metabolic surgeries. Depending on the patient’s current condition, body mass index, health problems and other factors, the most appropriate type of surgery is determined. Although there are many methods in metabolic surgery, the main goal is to get the nutrients taken to meet with bile and pancreatic secretions much later. This method makes it possible to secrete hormones that will increase the production of insulin by the pancreas. With the increase in insulin production, Type 2 diabetes is treated.

For whom is Metabolic Surgery Applied?

Metabolic surgery is the first treatment method among the treatment methods for type 2 diabetes patients. Before metabolic surgery, the patient should take diabetes under control with the changes he/she will make in his/her life, diet plan and exercise plan. However, if obesity and high sugar are combined, it will create a major risk factor in the patient’s life. Such patients can be operated immediately if deemed suitable for metabolic surgery. Type 2 diabetes will be a treatable disease thanks to metabolic surgery. After the surgery, which has a very high chance of success, the person becomes able to produce his/her own insulin. Patients who had metabolic surgery may not use medication or may have to use very little medication. The number of fully recovered patients is also substantial.

What are Metabolic Surgery Operations?

There are many different methods among metabolic surgery operations. First of all, it should be noted that all methods applied are performed with the laparoscopic method, which is called closed surgery. Depending on the type of metabolic surgery, the time required for the surgery will also differ. No large incisions are made in the patient for surgery. 4-6 holes with a diameter of 1 centimeter will be sufficient for surgery. Thanks to the instruments and camera equipment inserted through these holes, the surgery is performed.

Metabolic surgery operations include sleeve gastrectomy, mini gastric bypass, duodenal switch, gastric bypass, ileal transposition and transit bipartition operations. After the operation, the patient is kept under observation for 4-5 days. If no problems are encountered, the patient is discharged from the hospital. The main goals of the surgery are stomach shrinkage and reducing intestinal absorption.

Risks of Metabolic Surgery

As in any surgery, there are various risks in metabolic surgery. The risk factor differs according to the surgery performed and the current condition of the person. However, when the risks of surgery are compared with the current risks that people who need metabolic surgery have, the surgery will be much more innocent. After the patient’s examinations are carried out carefully before the operation, the operation should be started. With an expert staff and the right equipment, most of the surgeries are completed without any problems. After the operation, it is necessary to make sure that everything is in order by performing the necessary examinations on the patient.

Obesity and diabetes are usually coexisting disease diseases. Metabolic surgery is the biggest helper in solving these two problems at the same time. In order for metabolic surgery to be successful, the post-operative process should be followed closely. The process should be followed jointly with the dietitian and endocrine diseases specialist, and it should be ensured that the patient fulfills his/her responsibilities. In order for metabolic surgeries to reach the target successfully, the patient must strictly comply with the diet and exercise plan. It is also very important to be mentally motivated. After metabolic surgeries, an important 2-year weight loss process begins. During this long process, high motivation will be needed to be patient and determined.

Things to Consider

It is necessary to meet certain conditions in order to have metabolic surgery. People who can control blood glucose should have a body mass index above 40. People who cannot keep their blood sugar under control can consider metabolic surgery options if they have a body mass index above 30.

For metabolic surgery to treat the disease, the person’s pancreas must have the capacity to secrete insulin. If the patient’s pancreas does not have the capacity to secrete insulin, metabolic surgery will not be successful. Before and after the operation, examinations should be done very carefully. While it is possible to lose weight very quickly, especially in the first 3 months, the rate of weight loss slows down afterwards. Even if the weight loss rate slows down, the weight loss process will continue for 2 years. If there is no disruption in the diet and exercise plan of the patient, it is possible to get rid of both obesity and Type 2 diabetes.

Surgeon Güven Görkem

Surgeon Güven Görkem

General Surgery Specialist