The gallbladder is a very small sac and is located below the liver. The main function of the gallbladder is to store and concentrate bile. As a result of eating fatty foods, the stored bile is sent to the duodenum. When various health problems are experienced, the gallbladder may have to be removed. The main problems requiring removal of the gallbladder are stones and polyps formed in the gallbladder.
What is Gallbladder Stone?
Bile produced by the liver is concentrated in the gallbladder before being sent to the duodenum. To aid in the digestion of food, the gallbladder contracts and transfers concentrated bile to the duodenum. If the content of the bile becomes irregular and there is an inconsistency in the ratio of some substances, sludging occurs. As a result, gallbladder stones may occur. Gallbladder stones are formed in people who lose weight quickly, gain weight quickly, in women, in people with cholesterol and in people who use too much medication. Medical treatment of gallstones is not possible. As it has the potential to cause serious problems, it should be treated surgically.
What is a Gallbladder Polyp?
Polyp is the name given to soft tissue formations. It occurs on the inner surface of the gallbladder. If polyps over 10 mm occur or if many small polyps occur, the gallbladder is removed with surgery due to the risk of cancer.
Problems in the gallbladder cannot be eliminated with medication. Therefore, surgical procedure is mandatory.
How to Diagnose Gallbladder Diseases?
There are various methods to make a clear diagnosis in gallbladder problems. Ultrasonography to be performed on the abdominal region is the most economical method that gives the clearest information. Thanks to this method, all pathological conditions can be diagnosed along with polyps formed in the gallbladder. The formation of a large number of polyps in the gallbladder means a significant problem. In such cases, the gallbladder must be removed because there is a risk of cancer. Pathological tests can also be done.
How is Gallbladder Surgery Performed?
Gallbladder surgery is performed as a closed surgery. This method is called laparoscopic. In gallbladder surgery, the entire gallbladder is removed, not the stones or polyps formed. If inflammation has occurred in the gallbladder, this will make the surgery more difficult. In such risky cases, open surgery may be preferred.
For closed surgery, a camera is inserted into the abdomen and it is entered through 4 holes opened on the abdomen with other surgical equipment. Performing the surgery in a closed manner ensures that the recovery is very fast. Upon the surgery, the patient is followed up for a few days after the necessary examinations are made. If there is no negativity, the patient is discharged. The patient can return to its social life very quickly after discharge.
What Should Be Paid Attention After the Surgery?
At the end of the operation, the patient is taken to the room. Eating and drinking activities can be started 6 hours after the operation. If no adverse events are observed after 24 hours of observation, the patient is discharged from the hospital. The rest period of the discharged patient at home should be 2-3 days. Afterwards, he/she can return to his/her social life without any problems.
As the patient’s gallbladder will be surgically removed, the bile meets the intestines directly. This can cause problems such as indigestion, diarrhea and bloatedness. Between 6 and 12 months, these problems will decrease and disappear. This period must pass in order for the body to adapt. The duration of adaptation differs from patient to patient.
After the operation, it is necessary to pay attention to the following issues;
- The holes opened during the operation should be regularly dressed and kept sterile.
- Medicines given by a specialist physician should be taken at the correct dose and intervals.
- It is necessary to eat fibrous, whole grain, protein-rich foods. It is also necessary to drink plenty of water.
- Dairy products should be interrupted and fatty and sugary foods and beverages should be avoided. Caffeine consumption should also be avoided.
- Very light-paced walks will be good.
- The patient should not neglect to rest during the recovery process.
What are the Complications of Gallbladder Surgery?
Gallbladder surgery is a simple operation in cases where there is no extra condition. After the operation, the patient returns its normal life in a short time. People who have their gallbladder removed do not feel a deficiency in their vital functions. It is not a situation that will create a health problem for the person. In the past, the fluids coming from the liver to the gallbladder were stored in the gallbladder, but after the surgery, storage is not possible and the fluids mix directly with the blood. This does not pose a problem.
As in many other surgery, some side effects can be seen after gallbladder surgery. Rare, but common complications are listed below;
- Infection in case the holes opened for surgery are not sterile or not dressed.
- Damage in the small and large intestine
Apart from the above -mentioned side effects, there is a possibility of risky complications. Side effects with high risk ratio are very rarely seen. The following complications require emergency medical assistance.
- Fire above 38 degrees
- Swelling and pain process above normal in the abdomen
- Yellowing in skin color
- Respiratory problems and cough
- Pain that does not pass with high level of painkillers
- Blood or various currents from the holes opened for surgery
- Vomiting and nausea